Kharanaq:伊朗1000年的老泥砖鬼城

坐落在一个山坡上横跨岩石和石榴林的干旱河谷看着窗外,Kharanaq的泥砖墙已经在过去几百年很少改变。发生了什么变化,虽然是内他们是什么样的。从亚兹德的历史古城80公里的车程 - 就在伊朗的心脏 - 这个曾经在沙漠的边缘一枝独秀城堡现在已成放弃;它的拱门和圆顶永恒下慢慢恢复灰尘凝视山区。


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

I took a trip around Iran with my friendYomadic,我们的小组乘小巴,停车场老客栈旁到达Kharanaq。这些传统的路边旅馆是在伊朗旅行的主食,而这一次有木壁之间的几个很酷的石庭院。有一个商队在这里早前伊斯兰萨珊王朝(公元224-651),显然,尽管目前的建筑可以追溯到17世纪。后来,他们将在这里为我们服务午餐 - 烤肉,茄子酱,甜,米饭藏红花 - 但首先,我们在鬼域松套。


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

你几乎可以赶过去Kharanaq没有注意到它。道路平分村庄,新的建筑物包围一侧的客栈,而相反,一个普通的,高墙掩盖了摇bepaly平台摇欲坠的历史超越。Old men sit in patches of shade along the roadside, drinking tea, while a young boy tugs at the rope around a donkey’s neck, eventually wrestling the beast into submission then mounting up, to trot up and down the cobbles past the newly-arrived tourists. We duck through an arch in the wall whereupon the old village reveals itself. Even at first glance it has all the promise of a maze: the tall buildings offering a choice between three branching alleyways, each of which leads to more multiple-choice junctions. I pick a random direction, then another, and just keep walking. It doesn’t take long before I’m completely disorientated, out of sight and sound of the group I came with.


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

Kharanaq比它从路出现大得多。这个村 - 或围墙的城堡,更像是 - 远离溢出顺着山顶,其建筑几个楼层高,通过漆黑的地面层隧道的叠加图,以及尘土飞扬屋顶的通道相连。该建筑凸出到街上,从多年的泥和石膏修补而产生的有机曲线,拍打到此起彼伏的干墙一个屈指可数。在一些地方,他们已经崩溃:墙壁转向黄色粉末,揭示谁知道如何保存老秸秆纤维的簇。


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

如在Yazd,将水经由设置于Kharanaq坎儿井系统:一种地下输水管道的建成带来的水从主井在整个村一组垂直出入井的斜率。这里和那里,塞进高泥壁之间的角落,是半覆盖的坑,现在堵塞杂物,这似乎是所有这一次革命性的水系统的遗体。从狭窄的小巷,我看空舍的地面空间内。传统上,人们在这里放羊或低于其他家畜,并住他们楼上的家庭。安全性和集中供热相结合。


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

有时候,楼梯间内导致了起来,但更多的是人的空间感觉连接似乎通过不同的网络,不均匀楼梯访问,周围墙壁球茎的之外的曲线,或跟随在砖墙穹顶和拱门岌岌可危路径。登顶的一个拱门,我达到一个观点:村庄屋顶跌落,以露出山谷超越。干硬山周围形成Kharanaq下方领域的尖锐轮廓的周长。农作物以黄色和橄榄绿的整齐排标注出来,而在远处,在山的基地之间夹着,上升清真寺褪了色的柔和的蓝色圆顶。这是一个圣地 -apparently containing the hand of Imam Reza,什叶派穆斯林的十二神授的伊玛目之一。


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

我当场就等我的屋顶组的成员,我注意到有伊朗的游客也在这里。家庭走自己的孩子穿过紧的通道,或爬上高达屋顶的这一观点。同时云滚过山谷,铸造遥远的圆顶在交替的光影池,我看让我的方式回落到Kharanaq的迷宫般的街道前一段时间。

一些伊朗人声称Kharanaq是四千多岁– counting from the first evidence of human settlement in this area. However建筑史学家做的一千多年的安全要求。The location of the nearby Chak Chak fire temple – one of Iran’s most famous Zoroastrian temples – would suggest that in pre-Islamic times this was a Zoroastrian settlement, existing perhaps as a stopping place for merchants and caravans on the pilgrimage route. Some of the 80 houses that compose the citadel have been dated to the 14th and 15th centuries… other elements suggest pre-Islamic architecture, in the Seljuk style associated with the 10th and 11th centuries. However all structures share the same basic principle, having been designed to withstand the severe climate of the region, while benefitting from a fortified hilltop position to defend against enemy attacks.


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

Though it may look like a long-lost ancient city, Kharanaq was still inhabited as recently as the 1960s. Its residents abandoned their homes for more stable, accessible, modern houses nearby. The government offered bonuses of free land and electricity to those relocating to this ‘New Kharanaq’: a simple settlement built on a grid-like structure near the old citadel, which, as of 2006, was home to 133 families, or something like 350 people in total. The mud-brick houses of the old citadel meanwhile, deprived of regular maintenance, grew brittle in the sun and quickly began to disintegrate.

进一步我从入口获得越差这些建筑看起来。屋顶由裂纹和裂痕分裂,而卧室溢出通过地板到下面羊圈;在一些地方,阳光刺穿向下穿越毁建筑的三层楼。在村庄的尽头,几栋已经完全根据自己的体重倒塌。一个房子,从外壁夹着背面的块,但现在享有谷外一览无遗;它的几个邻居的房子已经倒塌已尘埃。我遵循的路径上面的杂物,通过一个家庭和到下一个,继陈腐的途径的泥和稻草屋顶......,突然我的脚径直穿过。


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

今天还有一个不舒服的脆弱性,以Kharanaq,这是很难不质疑现代访问者在它具有效果。伊朗导游鼓励游客潜水和探索......这里没有什么是禁地,而国内游客也可以看到这些缩放房子摇摇欲坠像山羊。但我留下的感觉,这样的经历只能有这么多的时间。邻近亚兹德已被列为联合国教科文组织世界遗产。据称伊朗想为Kharanaq相同,但没有这样的保护一直是即将到来,没有保护,没有区别的游客是否来这里与否:Kharanaq不长了这个世界。


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城伊朗Kharanaq鬼城


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

Perhaps I’m still feeling guilty about my contribution to the decline, because when I reach the far end of the village I come back not through the main paths, over the rooftops and the split-level walkways, but rather, around the outside of the citadel walls, through the sandy scrubland. Originally topped with six defensive watchtowers, now these walls are mostly a symbolic gesture; a decorative perimeter. Seen from this angle the village is more imposing, its organic curves and inviting corners replaced by a dense and derelict stack of multilevel housing. From outside the walls it looks like a dead husk… but from down the valley there come simultaneous sounds of life. A procession of villagers are making their way down from New Kharanaq, over the old stone bridge, to the mosque for prayers. Black chadors whip and ripple in the desert winds.


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

从山坡上,轨道切块备用进入沃伦样村,状如悬崖面两座建筑物之间的挤压。附近的木门被设置成岩石的粗大厦 - 这一个自然的悬崖,我意识到,几乎伪装对建筑,但挖空并投入使用完全一样的。


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

这条小道通向我备份驶向何方我们进入Kharanaq拱门,和过去的一些在村里的路边年底较新的楼房。bepaly平台在这里,清真寺和尖塔一些较新的补充,在17世纪增加,像客栈。bepaly平台

附近,我遵循一些步骤缠绕下入阴影,突然发现自己在一个澡堂。相比老村街道的泥砖墙,这个地方是一个鲜明的对比。瓷砖看起来比较新,仿佛这装修澡堂是他们在20世纪60bepaly平台年代离开之前Kharanaq的居民进行的最后一个社区项目之一。在内部,声音回响断瓦中不是英语,不是波斯语两种语言。我转身离开,并找到阻止中国游客的围观谁刚刚到自己的旅游巴士楼梯。


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

When we drive away from Kharanaq, a storm is brewing above the distant mountains. Its arches rise in silhouette against the clouds and figures move about on top, tourists posing for photos on these thousand-year-old structures, and then the road turns and the citadel is lost from sight. Kharanaq did not survive all this time by being fragile, but rather, these buildings were organic like a bee nest, constantly growing, evolving, repairing. Kharanaq shared a symbiotic relationship with the people it sheltered – and without them, it is simply unsustainable. It remains to be seen whether or not Iran is able to preserve this site before too much of it is lost; but even preserved, even protected as a UNESCO site, there is a sense here that without the community who made this citadel their home, Kharanaq will never again be anything more than a ghost town.


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城


伊朗Kharanaq鬼城

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走t a comment? I read them all – but if you need a response it's better to给我发一条信息

  1. Great post ! Im glad this blog is alive ! Thank you very much for the articles. Cheers from Uuruguay

  2. 优秀文章像往常一样!

  3. Excellent photos and insightful writing, as always.

  4. 什么照明的文章。谢谢

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